Presentation at ECEL 2010

I have submitted my first academic paper (gender based study for e-learning in Pakistan) for the European Conference on E-Learning (ECEL) 2010 and it’s been accepted for the conference preceding. This paper has published in the Electronic Journal of e-learning (EJEL). I have had an opportunity to attend the conference and give a presentation of my present at the conference. This conference was held atInstituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Porto, Portugal’ on 4th and 5th November 2010. I will upload my presentation along with audio recording.


The purpose of this paper was to highlight the problems affecting male and female students in e-learning in Pakistan. E-learning is not a new phenomenon in Pakistan. A number of studies have been carried out to assess the impact on e-learning. However, to date no study has focused specifically on ‘gender differences’ affecting the development of e-learning and how these factors can be overcome. This paper has identified a number of gender problems associated with e-Learning in Pakistan. It has measured the degree to which these factors affect male and female students. This paper has concluded with a number of practical recommendations for improving e-learning and how these gender differences can be overcome.


This comparative study has compared and contrasted an equal number of male (125) and female (125) school leavers (age 16) in ten (five girls schools and five boys schools) state schools in five different cities across Pakistan. The data was collected through 250 online completed questionnaires sent to school leavers through a survey software (SurveyMonkey). These matched samples were used to identify and explore the root causes affecting male and female students in e-learning development. This was followed by six in-depth semi-structured interviews (three male and three female students) in order to gain a comprehensive understanding as to why these various issues in the questionnaire disadvantaged the use and development of e-learning.


The results confirmed that there is a great scope for e-learning development in Pakistan. The findings showed a positive attitude among students regardless of their gender in consideration of using e-learning either currently or in the future. However, male students have tended to be exposed and encouraged more in the use and development of e-learning as compared to female students. Thus, a number of problems have disadvantaged many students from taking full advantage of e-learning and its benefits. The originality and the novelty of this paper is the distinctive methodological framework adopted. No other study (to date) has conducted a comparative study of male and female students in terms of e-learning development. There is only a limited amount of work available on e-learning and gender related factors, this paper therefore seeks to fill this gap and contribute to knowledge in the ICT sector.


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